Universalis, your very own breviary in pixels...

Thursday, 21 May 2015

Isn't it romantic?

Apparently, people in the chattering classes are concerned that some descriptive nouns commonly applied to criminals are a form of romanticizing said miscreants.
Their objection is not really that we aren't speaking harshly enough about those criminals, but that we aren't speaking sweetly enough about other criminals.

Not that anyone cares, but I personally find the manly images conjured up by the words "biker", "thug", "hooligan", "outlaw," and "weasel"  all... equally romantic.

Wednesday, 20 May 2015

The Irish and the Free Expression of Opposing Political Opinions

The case over whether a bakery can be compelled write political slogans with which they disagree on cakes, (the law says, apparently, only if the plaintiff is gay,) reminded me of a movie whose name I can't remember just now.

A sleazy night club manager in England sticks it to his organized crime bosses by booking gatherings of two different groups of senior citizens for the same date - one is a sodality from the local Catholic parish, or some such, all Irish ex-pats, and die-hard republicans; and the other, also Irish ex-pats, are super-annuated orangemen, getting ready for a march, IIRC.

One sweet little old (protestant,) lady says at one point, that's she's never really liked being required to shout, "F@*# the Pope!" at the rallies....

Wonder whether republican and orangeman bakeries have obligations to inscribe each others' slogans on half-sheet devils' food?

Why You Should Never Hesitate to Simply Explain Why Someone Else's Opinion is Wrong, and Why I Should Wait...

.... and read a bit more before I form an opinion.
Equality law in Northern Ireland is being used to destroy individual freedom, a leading Catholic barrister has said.
Following a legal ruling in Northern Ireland, in which a judge ruled that a bakery run by Christians discriminated against a gay customer by refusing to bake a cake with a pro-gay marriage slogan, Neil Addison wrote on his personal blog: “The case will undoubtedly be appealed but what does emerge from it is the complete intolerance of the “equality” industry and the way in which equality law is being used to destroy individual freedom including the freedom of a bakery company to decide what products it wants to make.”
Fair 'nuff.
Neil Addison said that it was surprising that the judge ruled that the bakery had discriminated on the grounds of sexual orientation.  
Yes, as even I, in my ignorance thought.
But ah ha!
He said: “Northern Ireland is unique in the UK for in making discrimination on the grounds of political opinion explicitly unlawful and this arises from the long history of sectarian division in Northern Ireland where religion, nationality and political opinion were so often synonymous with British/Unionist/Protestant identity facing Irish/Republican/Catholic identity.
And that makes sense.
And I think I might even approve of such a law, although previously I would have said, heck yeah, if a local church didn't want to rent their fellowship hall to a white supremacist group that was anti-immigrant, and not supported such a law.
But I can see how trying to put an end to discrimination against persons on account of their political opinions is a value that might require nurtuing in northern Ireland.
HOWEVER.... I still feel that forcing a merchant to to sell someone cake, and forcing a merchant to sell someone a specific cake AND BEING REQUIRED TO WRITE ON THAT CAKE SOMETHING THAT VIOLATED ONES BELIEFS are two very different matters.
That's just me.
But I am always open to hear why I am wrong.

For instance, could someone explain nicely why the specter of polygamy is a "red herring" in the  campaign against allowing people to marry those of their own sex?
So far the most cogent reasoning I have found is, ".... because it's different, that's why! It's apples and oranges," whihc has left me unconvinced.

When you get right down to it, what's the difference between pigeons and doves?

(And please don't tell me which one has more white meat....)
The Pope will release 3 pigeons from the steps of the presidential building in Herzagovina, fulfilling the fondest dreams of a Bosnian man.
On June 6, the Pope will answer the prayers of a humble Bosnian mail man and pigeon breeder.
From the steps of Bosnia's presidential building he will release three of Marin Cvitkovic's white pigeons into the Bosnian sky, in a gesture designed to spread his blessing over the troubled country and its three ethnic groups.
"Pigeons represent peace and love," Cvitkovic said. 
As for me and my house...
Himself cannot see a bird without channelling a character from The Producers, encounter a pigeon in the park or the calling card of a crow on the car, and he informs everyone within earshot, "I'm the conci-URGE. My husband used to be the conci-URGE....He's up on the roof with his boids. He keeps boids. Dirty… disgusting… filthy… lice-ridden boids.”
We're both well aware that his routine scrambles what the concierge actually says in the movie, accuracy is really not the point of shared shtick.
The Producers (1967) Poster
Shared Shtick is one of the great pillars of civilization.
My memory may be playing tricks, but I believe I broke up with someone once, primarily over who made better comedies, Mel Brooks or Woody Allen.

I ask you...

Tuesday, 19 May 2015

"The Tradition That Unites Us To Christ"

A very nice testimonial, essentially, from the Canons Regular of St John Cantius, to the great Francis Cardinal George, of happy memory.
The Liturgy, along with Sacred Scripture, is the primary carrier of the tradition that unites us to Christ.
(From an interview His Eminence gave last October.) 

I hadn't read the interview at the time - George rightly calls the interviewer, (albeit gently,) for phrasing a question in a way that presumes, and therefore helps spread, an untruth.
And he pulls no punches on the translation the current Missal translation replaced, (after graciously admitting that his opinion is perforce biased):
...the first full translation of the missal of Paul VI was ideologically charged..... the loss of the theology of grace, the domestication of God, the paraphrasing that deliberately omitted nuances of understanding, the deliberate omission of biblical references in the liturgical text itself, etc. left the church for forty years without a way of worship that adequately expressed our faith. This was clear for those of us who used the Roman missal in Spanish during those years; their translation was far more adequate. The bishops had the obligation to see that the translation into English of the third edition of the Roman Missal was faithful and also able to be used communally. I believe it has been well done.
Some of the expressions in the Prefaces are a bit “clunky,” but the collects are truly beautiful if a priest takes the time to interiorize the structure of  dependent clauses and use his voice so that the prayer is comprehensible to the faithful. Normally, people paid little attention to the collect; they couldn’t tell you what the priest said as soon as they sat down. Hopefully, a more deliberate style of declamation with a more adequate text will help draw people into a climate of worship and prepare them to hear the Word of God in Scripture.
Amen and amen.
I've said it more than anyone cares to hear, in so many cases, the phrasing, the orator's rhetorical techniques utilized in the, ordering of the words acts like stage lighting, or a singer's expressive breaths to draw attention to key words, emphasize parallels, highlight the center of the prayer -- time after time I find myself turning over a phrase I'd never noticed before for hours after morning Mass, sometimes days.
If unacustommed to the syntax or vocabulary, a celebrant finds that he needs to focus, to pause, to slow down, TO SPEAK WITH GREATER CARE THAN USUAL - is that not all to the good?

(Full disclosure, I am a member of the flock of a shepherd who says Mass as if a meter is about to run out, and a parking ticket will mean financial ruin for us all...)

Sexual Discriminition?

Okay, the whole thing was almost certainly orchestrated just to bring a case, but.....
A judge has ruled that a Christian-owned bakery in Northern Ireland discriminated against a customer after it refused to make a cake bearing a pro-gay marriage slogan.
The Northern Ireland Equality Commission brought the case against Ashers Baking Company, which is based in Co Antrim, on behalf of Gareth Lee, whose order was declined.
District judge Isobel Brownlie delivered the guilty verdict at Belfast County Court earlier today.
“The defendants have unlawfully discriminated against the plaintiff on grounds of sexual discrimination,” she said....
Ashers Bakery, run by the McArthur family, was accused of discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation after it refused to make a cake carrying an image of Sesame Street characters Bert and Ernie below the phrase ‘Support Gay Marriage’. 
... surely it is obvious to every thinking person that the bakers would also refuse to make such a cake for a straight man? or for a woman? and that the refusal has nothing to do with the person and everything to do with the political/social cause embodied in the requested words?
 Image result for bert and ernie
Okay, the hat changes everything - I see now that Bert and Ernie ARE gay.

One Little Word

Corpus Christi Watershed has some downloads of early offerings in the attempts to supply the vernacular Mass with worthy musical settings, (that is to say, worthy of the activity that is the Source and Summit of our faith, perhaps of our very existence on earth - was the task ever approached with the fear and trembling it deserved? Because, you know, unlike the Pope, I am a big fan of fear, and don't think, as the Holy Father does, that those who experience it evince an "attitude" that is "not Christian." But perhaps like Yogi, the Pope "really didn't say everything he said." And I digress.)

Jeff Ostrowski sidetracks a little:
By the way, I wish ICEL had kept “peace on earth to men of good will.” I hate the wording in the current version. If they were set upon avoiding the word “men,” I wish they would have done something like “peace on earth to those of good will.” But nobody asked me.
I have to disagree, that would open a Costco-sized can of worms.

I can hardly believe it is necessary to say this, but O, the times, O the mores!

To replace "people" with "those" would open the door to revision according to the madness that tries to assert that not all "persons" are "people." 
Once society accepts that, (and it seeming to be getting perilously close,) who is to say that the Lord did not give his life upon the cross for chimpanzees and dolphins? 

Look how eager people were to report that "Pope Francis has declared that dogs go to heaven."
I fear that before society's current set of neuroses and mania run their course, and a corrective sets in, species fluidity will be as accepted by the chattering classes as gender fluidity.

As for me and my house, we will believe in human exceptionalism.

Saturday, 16 May 2015

Ascension Thursday Sunday

Don't recall who calls it that, hope it's someone I "like." (or at least, of whom, and of whose effect on the People of God I approve. Even some writers with whom I generally agree don't make the cut on that. I digress.)
It didn't even occur to me that someone who has more to do with organizing the liturgy than i wouldn't know that in this diocese big swath of the country, we celebrate Ascension, not the Seventh Sunday.
Should have seen the face when I began, "In my first book, Theophilus...."

Should have known, or guessed, from the accent - we both grew up in dioceses that take the longer view of thin, that practice more traditionally, perhaps taking their cues from a time when American Catholics were happy, even proud, to insist on their catholicity, their... identity?

A bit of brilliance from Matthew Weiner

Answering an interviewer, a question like, "do people think....?" or a statement such as "people react to our work as if..." Weiner says,
The first serious history class I took, I had this wonderful teacher, Dr. Johnson, who basically said, “Whenever you hear the word ‘people,’ you are hearing baloney.” People are unpredictable. They’re always divided, and they are individuals.
The same goes for pundits pronouncing, "Catholic will...." or "women don't want...."

Aren't you tired of being told what you think, or how you feel, or what you'll do?
I know I am.

Last Mad Men tomorrow, sorry to see it go.

Thursday, 14 May 2015

Why, Miss Jane Pittman!

 The Paley Center For Media Hosts A Tribute To African-American Achievements in Television
Can this be right?
This woman is 90?
Wiki must have it wrong....
I don't know anything about this woman other than that she is a great actress, but now I'm thinking she may also be a wizard, or Time Lord, or an Elvish pincess -- or maybe she took a page out of Dorian Grey's book and there's a portrait somewhere.

Signs and Wonders

We drove some distance to go to Mass on Sunday.
It was Mothers' Day and I couldn't bear, didn't want to risk going to our parish, and besides, I don't often have the opportunity to attend the Extraordinary Form.
We arrived early, and after praying before Mass,  I was talking to my Mother and Father, as is my wont.
How much Mom had loved it the few times I was able to bring here there.
I've been laughing lately, somewhat ruefully, that the Almighty only breaks the laws of nature, only gives us miracles when they are necessary, for faith - so if you already believe you're plumb out of luck! No miracles for YOU....
But gee, wouldn't a sign be swell? just a little one? Dad? Mom?
No, I know. It isn't necessary.
But would it kill ya?
That's okay.
I feel especially close to my parents, really to all my family, even those I never knew, in Church. At Mass, especially at the Latin Mass that generations of them sang and prayed.
I love this from a letter of St. Teresa of the Andes:
How I would have loved to be by your side...But our souls met by the tabernacle.
And so they do.
Our souls meet by the tabernacle.

Anyway, I need to take advantage of the few weeks this time of year when I can get there, you know, long drive or not, before it's back to the dry, minimalism of...
Wait, what?.... what's the priest saying, what' he announcing before Mass?
He's being transferred, he won't be available to say the EF for them any more down here.

He's being transferred

He's being transferred to a parish in my town.

Signs and wonders, signs and wonders

Adventures In Progressive Solemnity, Long Form

I was fortunate enough to have the opportunity to attend a Mass in the Extraordinary Form recently.
Generally, although one is offered in my diocese every weekend, the distance and timing, and my own Sunday obligations are such that I instead seek a musicless Mass.

My husband, a late in life convert to Catholicism, was raised by a Mother who, Methodist or not, understood the concept of the "Sunday Obligation;" and at the time he and I arrived at an understanding, we usually attended two services every Sunday morning, (a Mass and whatever protestant church in the area gave promise of the best music,) so he was a very experienced church-goer by the time he was received into the Church.

The first time we attended a Mass with no singing or instrumental music whatsoever, he was taken aback, he had never before encountered any kind of Christian worship which did not include singing.
He hated it!
How could you praise God without bursting into song?
We continued in our nomadic life to seek musical excellence where we could find it, but gradually his hunger for the Eucharist eclipsed his musical preferences, and as he grew to understand the level to which liturgical music has sunk in many places, (Protestant as well as Catholic, I might add,) he embraced the quiet Mass.
We settled for a time in a parish that had a not too bad music program.
When I became involved in a "liturgy committee", (mea culpa,) they were in the process of trying to introduce music into the single quiet Mass in the entire town of five Catholic churches, and the congregants were fighting them tooth and nail.
The PIPs, for the most part, refused to pick up hymnals, and kept their jaws clenched.
Someone on the committee bemoaned the fact, and I repeated the complaint I had heard regarding the choice of hymns, which were puerile, to put it mildly; TPTB had supposed that what was needed as an ice-breaker were "easy" songs, so with no change from week to week, they were asking people to sing the stuff programmed at school Masses.
Over and over.
They knew whom I was quoting, so obviously the PIPs were trying to, forgive the paradox, make their voices heard.
I suggested instead of inserting fairly arbitrary songs, they start with the dialogues and the Our Father, maybe the alleluia before the Gospel.
Blank looks.
You know, (I had probably just learned this phrase,) “progressive solemnity.”
More blank looks.
Like it suggests in Musicam Sacram? A document of Vatican Council?
Oh, well, maybe, they all agreed, even the priests, that that might be the way to go - until they realized that "dialogue" meant singing initiated by the celebrant or other minister.
Nope, they just wanted the people to sing more.
Mind you, all of our priests had fine voices and could either read music very well, (including square-note, I later learned,) or were very good natural musicians who could pick up anything by ear.
But having drunk deeply of the spirits of Vatican, Too, they, (with the agreement or even insistence of their lay colleagues,) were intent upon getting the people to "do" more, not altering their own approach to celebrating Mass.
Eventually I was offered a music/choir director position.
(I had had one years before, while I was still in school, but this was so long ago that it was in the period when the job was picking out 4 hymns that used some of the same words as the readings and posting the numbers. The less said about it, the better.)
In this new position I tried to steer things toward a less preference-centric choice of music, but the deeply-ingrained, three generation long, choir culture; competing ethnic and language needs; and the power structure of rectory/school/religious ed office required constant negotiations.
Returned for a visit after we moved, discovered that some practices I had pressed for for years unsuccessfully had finally been adopted, ( singing the verbum Domini dialogues,) others which I had instituted had been discarded, (the Exultet as written, sung Sequences when called for,) and others which only began under my short tenure, not without push-back, were acknowledged as "the way we've always done it,"(singing the Lectionary psalm.)
The parish where I now find myself has a well-meaning but slap-dash approach to liturgical music and liturgy in general.
I have found other ways to contribute, and enjoy the lowest and earliest of Sunday
Since I am no longer responsible, or even much effected by any musical planning, for over three years I have thought of myself as taking R & R from the front lines of the Liturgy Police Action, (it's not a war!)
When I've worked in a parish setting, TPTB were always slightly Latin-phobic, so obviously only Ordinary Form for Mass or LotH. Convincing them that what they wanted to sing, or were accustomed to sing weren't necessarily the most important things to sing, and that the Church actually gave us guidance on this, (apart from what our diocesan OoW put out,) was like pulling teeth.
Instead of Progressive Solemnity, we were fortunate to even be able to achieve a sort of Regressive Triviality.
I have taken part in Extraordinary Form Masses with great joy, at Colloquia and when I have found myself in the environs of St John Cantius, or had the opportunity to attend one for which Jenny Donelson's schola sang; and I have even been happy to have the chance to hear the traditional Mass when neither the priest nor the musicians, nor we faithful in the pews seemed very sure of who should do what when.
I even accidentally attended Mass at a schismatic chapel, before I knew there were such people and places, and I give thanks for, and "enjoyed" that.

I have never had any musical responsibilities at these, (other than singing as told at CMAA functions,) so never thought much about what is supposed to be done.
I generally position myself near someone who seem confident of his postures and gestures, whose hand missal looks well-loved, and copy him.
But I have realized that there is very little consistency from place to place.
(The first clue that I had was the PBC notation about "IF the confiteor is said again, turn to pg 25," or some such.)
Some places one priest reads the Lesson and Gospel in English while another reads them quietly in Latin, others the vernacular follows the "real" scripture. Some places the PIPs kneel for the entire time except the Gospel and homily. Some everyone recites the Gloria along with the celebrant. One priest stopped in mid-Pater noster to silence the people who were singing along with him, another practically conducted us to sing along.
I was given to understand that this is all because, in the day, there really were no rubrics for the people.
But the rubrics for the musicians are pretty clear, I had thought, especially the distinctions between solemn, sung and read Mass, a la Musica Sacra.
But even these seem to be a source of confusion.
The organist at one parish told me she and her choir "just do what Father wants," and there are four different "Fathers" who might show up on a moments notice.

The Mass I attended Sunday was lovely, and profoundly prayerful.
I found myself entering into it such that I was saved from playing Liturgy Scorekeeper, (a more passive role that Liturgy Police,) no ticking off boxes, wondering why so and so did such and such.
It was only after Mass that I thought, hmmm, 2 Latin motets and one English anthem, or that was nice, that little organ filler, sounds like Rossini, and then repeat the anthem, or, gee, only one voice to a part, none of them very strong but sweet polyphony, or wait a minute, they only sang some of the Gregorian Ordinary, and we all spoke the rest together, didn't we?
It all seemed, it felt appropriate.
Were they, perhaps, applying principles of progressive solemnity from Musicam Sacram to the EF, taken advantage of the provision for varying "degrees" of sung Mass?
And why shouldn't they?
That might sound flip, or combative, but it's really not.
IRL I have no access to anyone particularly knowledgeable about this, and I thank God every day for Those InterWebs.
But the internet is full of Facts that Everybody Knows - that aren't true.
And there often seem to be differences of opinion as to what pronouncements are descriptive and what prescriptive.
I thought I had learned that Musicam Sacram does not apply to the EF, (though of course there are some who try to insist it doesn't apply to the Novus Ordo... who, pray tell, would they be?)
I was startled to learn, (but I am ignorant - people who keep up on these things also seemed startled to learn,) in the comment box of this several month old thread at New Liturgical Movement, which addresses these very questions, that a book of rubrics for the old Mass is available online. The date of publication is 1960, but would it be in effect for the 1962 Missal?
A lot of the conversation there of course is simply opinion - leaned, informed opinion, but not really helpful for those who might be preparing sing half take baby steps in preparing music for liturgy.
It doesn't matter to me right now so much what the Church should have asked of us as what She does ask.
I want to know what's what, and what ought to be, and what ought not -- because I have a premonition, or at least a hope, that I might need to know.
What “legitimate diversity” is there in the Extraordinary Form?

Sunday, 10 May 2015

Happy Endings

I was sitting in Mass this week and like a headline or advertising slogan, the words, "There are no happy endings in this life except dying in a state of grace," popped into me, clear and crisp and loud as if someone had said them...
I say "popped into me" rather than the more usual "popped into my head" because... well, because I didn't actually think them, I just took them, or rather they took me.

Okay, a bit verbose for either headline, slogan or aphorism, but there it was.

I watch a lot of too much television, and a number of my favorites are winding down.

I have come to terms with the fact that I will never appear on the Letterman show introduced as, xxxx, currently xxx-ing at xxxx and one fabulous babe, while Paul and CBS Orchestra played the theme from Peter Gunn. (Yes, that specifically was one dream of mine. Embarrassing, no?)
Person of Interest, (a shockingly pro-life while at the same time shockingly violent drama,) had a season finale that threatens to leave the regular cast diminished by at least one or two come fall - I will stop watching, if what I would call the worst happens.
Mad Men is teasing its viewers with hints of then subverted closure for its major characters, and while at first I wanted at least some "happily ever afters," I realized that the show, for whatever unrealistic conceits it has employed over the years, is in many ways too naturalistic for that.

Things don't come to an end in this life, certainly not to happy ends.
They drift into other things.
Even when all seems settled, and perfect - like resolution in music, ah we're all here, got through that safely, all have what we want, sit down for a breather, things are settled --
It isn't true.

It just isn't true, things are never like that, life is never like that.

Even if the best possible outcome seems to have been arrived at, life is a process of death.
What awaits us but decay and diminution?

It's Mothers' Day weekend, and I am less than cheerful, not long ago thought we had arrived at a point where things were accomplished, and we would enjoy, and my Mother would enjoy, as Laura Ingalls Wilder put it, these happy, golden years
(When I was in first grade, and devouring that series after being promoted to access to the Big Part of the school library, I hated getting to that, both because it seemed like an unwanted end to a pleasure and because "golden years" seemed like something bathed in a sickly light, like the front of Chicago's cathedral's nave... I digress.)
It seemed as if our lives had reached a plateau that we could at least enjoy for a few years, but no.

How quickly things fall apart.
Forget a Happy Ending, I didn't even think we got a fair share of the Happy Middle.

But that is life.

Or rather, that is this life.

The happy ending, if it is to be had, is only the beatific vision, and I will learn to stop thinking and saying, it's not fair.

Fair will come.

p.s. A few years ago, thanks to a reaction from someone to a sitcom title, a someone who is usually cheerfully raunchy and foul mouthed in his humour, I learned that there is another, perhaps nowadays more common meaning to the title of this post than that I intended.
Don't care, I will gaily use it, I refuse to cede another phrase or word to the Culture of Filth.

Today's Readings

 Heading out later on a rare opportunity to celebrate in the ordo vetus, (or when speaking of the older rite is it not appropriate to say that the PIPs "celebrate," as if often heard of the newer? No matter.)

Haven't looked up the readings, though I'm fairly sure it's the same Sunday? weeks from the point of Easter is weeks from the point of Easter...
Worry not that I will be denied the scripture assigned in the modern ordo for today, (even if I did not almost always prepare,) heard those yesterday.

I'm guessing I'm not the only one who chuckled a bit, even if only inwardly, at the Prince of the Apostles dragging Cornelius up from his knees, with, get up, I myself am also human.

And cue KING'S LYNN.

Is there doubt that they risk their lives for us every day?

A traffic stop.
Image result for Benjamin J. Deen"Liquori Tate".

This is not to say cops shouldn't be held accountable for their own crimes, this is not to say classist, racist strains must be rooted out of forces, this is not to say they are always right and other citizens always wrong.

It is just to say that going into every situation with what might seem to me on my couch excessive caution, excessive resources, excessive show of force - it's something reasonable, and something that they do for my welfare, for your welfare, for society's welfare.
Requiescant in pace

Saturday, 9 May 2015

What Were Those Trees?

One of the silly delights of falling more deeply in love, after you are already "in love," is in discovering similarities in your differences.
(As an example of this, Himself and I the first time we dined out on chicken acted as if we'd discovered the cure for the common cold, ooh, I like white meat and you like dark, yes, but, not only is that a handy complementarity when apportioning the bird, we seemed to consume our food at exactly the same rate!!!!! the same, shamefully rapid, rate.....)

My Father used to like to fib that he knew only two flowers, roses and sweet william - he stubbornly named any non-Rose bloom, ah - sweet william! 
Image result for sweet william

On our honeymoon I learned Himself calls all, not merely flowers, all PLANTS regardless of size, type, "zinnia."
Image result for zinnia yellow
I just realized that this is more or less when we were in England, and i'm thinking I ought to finally find out what those gorgeous flowering trees were - one did not pass a churchyard or walk down a suburban street, or wander in a park that wasn't resplendent with one.
I asked him if he knew, but i don't care what he said - these were not zinnia, (I kinda hate yellow flowers.)

These were EVERYWHERE!
And they were GORGEOUS! rich, complex rose and pink and blush colors, so lush with blossoms that until you got very close they seemed to have no foliage.
We asked several people, different days, different towns - alas, for a nation of avid gardeners. no one we met seemed to know.

What's blooming there now?
I search the web looking for their picture, their name...

Were they simply apple?
Not that apple isn't a fine thing for them to be.
Mabe a Judas tree......
Image result for "judas tree"

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